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HEINZ HANDBOOK OF NUTRITION (2003)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS
Digestion of Protein2
Intestinal Absorption of Amino Acids
and Di-and Tripeptides 3
Protein Requirements5
Indispensable and Dispensable Amino Acids 5
Metabolism of Amino Acids8
Transamination11
Oxidative Deamination11
Urea Cycle 12
Glucose-Alanine Cycle12
Citric Acid Cycle13
Individual Characteristics of Amino Acids 13
Glycine 13
Glutamic Acid13
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine 14
Histidine 14
Tryptophan 14
Proline and Hydroxyproline14
Arginine14
Cysteine, Cystine and Methionine 14
Taurine 14
Dietary Management of Phenylketonuria 15
Protein Restriction and Overloading 16
Suggested Readings 17
Chapter 2 CARBOHYDRATES
Monosaccharides 19
Hexoses 22
Glucose 22
Fructose23
Galactose 23
Mannose23
Hexose Derivatives 23
Sorbitol 23
Mannitol 24
Inositol 24
Pentoses24
Disaccharides24
Sucrose25
Lactose 25
Maltose 25
Oligosaccharides26
-Galactosides26
Fructooligosaccharides 26
Polysaccharides 27
Starch27
Glycogen28
Cellulose 28
Gum 28
Functions29
Digestion and Absorption 29
Metabolism 30
Glycolysis32
Citric Acid Cycle and Electron Transport System 32
Pentose Phosphate Shunt 32
Glycogenesis 32
Glycogenolysis32
Metabolic Relationships of Carbohydrate to
Protein and Fat33
Gluconeogenesis 33
Synthesis of Protein and Fat from Carbohydrate33
Carbohydrate in the Diet 33
Source33
Composition of the Diet 33
Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism34
Lactose Intolerance34
Sucrose Intolerance 35
Galactosemia 35
Diabetes Mellitus36
Dietary Fiber40
Artificial Sweeteners42
Suggested Readings 43
Chapter 3 LIPIDS
Fatty acids 45
Triglycerides 46
Phospholipids48
Sphingolipids49
Sterols49
Waxes 51
Functions51
Digestion and Absorption 52
Transport of Lipids54
Chylomicrons 55
VLDL 55
LDL 55
HDL56
Metabolism 56
Lipolysis and Beta-Oxidation 56
Ketosis 57
Lipogenesis57
Cholesterol Metabolism 57
Relationship Between Fat and Carbohydrate
and Protein 58
Levels and Sources of Fats in the Diet 58
Dietary Fat and Blood Cholesterol 59
Trans Fatty Acids60
Omega - 3 Fatty Acids 61
Hyperlipoproteinemias65
Dietary Fat and Cancer 65
Fat Substitutes65
Suggested Readings 67
Chapter 4 VITAMINS
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A 69
Sources72
Absorption and Storage 72
Functions 73
Deficiency 74
Toxicity75
Health Benefits75
Vitamin D76
Sources77
Absorption78
Functions 78
Deficiency 78
Toxicity79
Health Benefits79
Vitamin E 80
Sources81
Absorption83
Functions83
Deficiency 84
Toxicity84
Health Benefits84
Vitamin K 85
Sources86
Absorption86
Functions 87
Deficiency 87
Toxicity87
Water Soluble Vitamins
Thiamin88
Sources88
Absorption, Storage and Excretion90
Functions 90
Deficiency 91
Riboflavin92
Sources92
Absorption and Storage 94
Functions 94
Deficiency 94
Niacin 95
Sources95
Absorption, Synthesis and Excretion96
Functions 96
Deficiency 97
Toxicity97
Health Benefits98
Biotin 98
Sources98
Functions 98
Deficiency 100
Pantothenic Acid100
Sources100
Functions 101
Deficiency 101
Vitamin B6103
Sources103
Functions 103
Deficiency105
Toxicity 106
Health Benefits106
Folic Acid106
Sources106
Functions 107
Deficiency 107
Toxicity109
Health Benefits109
Vitamin B12 109
Sources110
Absorption, Storage and Excretion111
Functions 112
Deficiency 112
Health Benefits113
Vitamin C113
Sources113
Absorption, Storage and Excretion114
Functions 116
Deficiency 116
Toxicity 116
Health Benefits117
Suggested Readings 118
Chapter 5 MINERALS
Macrominerals
Calcium 119
Sources120
Absorption and Metabolism 121
Deficiency 122
Toxicity122
Magnesium123
Sources123
Absorption and Metabolism 123
Deficiency 123
Toxicity125
Phosphorus 125
Sources125
Absorption and Metabolism 125
Deficiency 126
Toxicity126
Sodium and Potassium 126
Sources127
Absorption and Metabolism 129
Deficiency 129
Toxicity129
Hypertension130
Trace Elements
Cadmium 131
Chromium131
Copper132
Sources133
Absorption and Metabolism 134
Deficiency 134
Toxicity135
Fluoride 135
Sources136
Iodine138
Sources138
Absorption and Metabolism 139
Deficiency 140
Toxicity 140
Iron 141
Sources141
Absorption and Metabolism 141
Deficiency 144
Toxicity145
Lead 146
Manganese148
Sources149
Absorption and Metabolism 149
Deficiency 149
Toxicity149
Nickel149
Selenium 150
Sources150
Deficiency 151
Toxicity151
Tin 152
Zinc152
Sources and Availability153
Absorption and Metabolism 155
Deficiency 155
Toxicity156
Suggested Readings 157
Chapter 6 DIETARY STANDARDS, FOOD GUIDES
AND DIETARY GOALS
Dietary Standards 159
Dietary Reference Intakes181
Dietary Goals (Guidelines) 194
Food Guides196
Suggested Readings 200
Chapter 7 GENERAL NUTRITION
Infant Feeding203
Growth203
Milk Feeding 206
Breastmilk 206
Infant Formula 210
Cow’s Milk 211
Complementary Feeding 211
Vitamin Supplements 214
General Considerations214
Food Allergy 216
Gluten Sensitivity218
Weight Control and Physical Activity220
Etiology of Obesity 224
Methods of Weight Reduction 225
Childhood Obesity 229
Nutrition and Sports 230
Nutrition of the Elderly 232
Nutrient Requirements 232
Energy232
Protein233
Calcium 233
Iron233
Folate 234
Use of Supplements234
Factors Influencing Food Intake 234
Principles For Feeding the Elderly 235
Suggested Readings 237
Chapter 8 NEW HORIZONS IN NUTRITION
Functional Foods239
Dietary Fiber 239
Pro- and Prebiotics 241
Long Chain PUFA 243
Phytochemicals 246
Organosulfur Compounds 246
Flavonoids 247
Saponins250
Carotenoids 251
Herbal and Botanical Supplements260
Herbs for Cardiovascular Diseases 260
Herbs for Immune Systems 261
Herbs with Anticancer Activity 261
Safety Issues 262
Suggested Readings 263
References 265


-------------------------------------------------------------
HEINZ HANDBOOK OF NUTRITION (2003)
HJ HEINZ COMPANY
Edited by
David L Yeung, PhD
General Manager - Global Nutrition
HJ Heinz Company
and
Idamarie Laquatra, PhD, RD
Nutrition Consultant
- PDF - 1.92 Mb - 265 pag